The Anglo-Gadabuursi Treaty
THE GADABURSI TREATY (Concluded with the British authority, in December 11, 1884 ) We, the undersigned Elders of the Gadabursi tribe, are desirous of entire into an agreement with the British Government for the maintenance of our independence, the preservation of the order, and other good and sufficient reasons. Now it is hereby agreed and covenanted as follow: Article I The Gadabursi tribe do hereby declare that they are pledged and found never to cede, sell, mortgage or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British government, any portion of the territory presently inhabited by them or being under their control. Article II All vessels under the British flag shall have free permission to trade all ports and places in the territories of the Gadabursi tribe. Article III All British subjects, residing in, or visiting, the territories of the Gadabursi tribe, shall enjoy perfect safety and protection and shall be titled to travel all over the said limits under the safe conduct of the elders of the tribe. Article IV The traffic in slaves throughout the territories of the Gadabursi tribe shall cease for ever and the Commander of Her Majesty’s vessels, or any other British Officer duly authorised, shall have the power requiring the surrender of any slave, and of supporting the demand by force of arms by land and sea. Article V The British Government shall have the power to appoint an agent or agents to reside in the territories of the Gadabursi tribe, and every such agent shall be treated with respect and consideration and be entitled to have for his protection such guard as the British Government deem sufficient. The above written treaty shall come into force and have effect from the date of signing this agreement. In token of the conclusion of this lawful and honorable bond, Iama Roblay, Mohamed Ali Balol, Ilmee Warfah (Ughaz’ son), Rogay Khairi, Waberi Idlay, Roblay, Warfah, Doaly Dilbad, Amir Egal, Gaylay Shirwah, Warfah Roblay, Yunus Boh and Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, the former for themselves, their heirs and successors, and the latter on behalf of the British Government, do each and all in the presence of witnesses affix their signatures, marks, or seals at Zaila on the eleventh day of December one thousand eight hundred and eighty-four, corresponding with the twenty-fifth of Safar one thousand three hundred and two. (Signed) F. M. Hunter, Major, Bombay Staff Corps Signed in presence: (Signed) Percy Downes, First Grade Officer, I. M. (Signed) Dufferin, Viceroy and Governor General of India This agreement was ratified by the Governor General of India in Council at Calcutta on the twentieth February one thousand eight hundred and eighty-five. (Signed) H. M. Durand, Officiating Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department Fort William, The 25th February 1885
The Gadabursi kings: The role of Imam Said Samaroon in Dir History
The Dir history in Iman Samaroon’s era- Submitted By:Huurshe Mahe Dir! Mahe Dir! Tariikhda Direed ma qormeyso, mana soconayso Madanluug Dir laantii. Imam Samaroon Said alle ha unaxriisto 1432 AD ,when the Amhara cruseaders conquered Somali, Iman Said was the muslim leader who led the Madanluug Dir and when the imam was later fighting in the Westren flank of the Guurey army he was injured at dardarley. The name Gadabuursi was given to his descendents at the last critical moment before he made a final stand to the Amhara at the mandaluug ancestral homeland of Amuud which was destroyed 1459 A.D by the Xabasha invaders over 50,000 homes where discovered by archeologists recently and the place was leveled with the ground 10, 000 thousands perished. The Magadle Dir was completely annilated except for the 10,000 or saw that survive in Cerigaabo. The Madoobe Dir installed a Madaxweyn Dir dynasty The Wardiiq who was the ruling remenants of the Madaxeyn Dir in the north. Madigan, Gurgure and the Barsuug Dir fled west and were encirled by the Oromos- Many assimilated and the union formed a half cast Jarso. The Isaaq Dir reconstituted as Maxamed (Axmed Xiniftire) new Habar alliences formed the Nacadoor,Mikidoor,Nabidoor and the Idoor all disappeared. The name Gaada Biirsay means The one who collected the army or “chests” the name refered to the desparate effort of imam Samaroon Said to collect and muster the power of his kinsman against the infidels. Gaado means shafka ama xabadka (gaada ha i saarin oo kale. Gaadsan the westren Dir ‘s name means the one with the army or good chest litraray. The Gadabuursi latter suffered a davastating defeat and actually the present day Amuud which has a old cementary called Lafaruug was destroyed by the Amhara King. Also note it was this period that the King Shihad a Diin buried in Zailac Island was killed. The Gudabuursi Dir and Modoobe Dir never recovered from these davastating blows. The Madaluug in Southren Somalia and the Biyamaal as well as The Fiq’s Suure all left at this point their Southren movement from Amuud region in the 1600’s during the Axmed Guurey era. The Suure Dir who are, as a matter of fact, still in Hauda region and whom refer them self’s as Fiqi’s where the Her or sheikh associated with Awbarre/Buube/ Yusuf Barkad kowniin students who entered Mudug region at the time when the Ajuuran ruled at mereg and some served as Imams under one malakh Gareenow Xaasey. The Suure Fiqi’s, Biyamaal, Guure, and the Badimaal all entered the south by 1700. The Biyamal claim to have entered the Banadir area, a name meaning beynka direeb, in 1700’s. The Gurgure/Akisho cluster and reminders of Madaxweyn Dir conquered the Dira Dhabe ” meeshu Diri Dhabe” ama waranka ka taagay. The Gurgure which is not their real name (Gurgure means trader hence the word Gorgortan – to bargain) or the trader became oromized after the great oromo invasions many Dir became lost or dispered. Today in the south and westren Somali you will find a large cluster of Mandaluug Dir who live with the Southren Suure, Biyamal, and Gadsan
The History of the Dir People.
In the 1500’s several things happened in the early struggles of Axmed Gran with the Ethiopia Christian Imperialists who where sprearheading attacks into Muslim lands.
According to Fatuh Al Habash: 1) Ahamed Gran came into the hinterlands of North Westren Somalia in order to recruit fighters amoung the Mandaluug Dir, Mahomed Xiniftire Or Mahe Dir and Madoobe.
The fatuh al Habash mentions the Habar Magadle (Maha Dir) by name as one group which Gureey try to draw into his camp.Nevertheless, the Habar Awal and Habar Yonis joined the Gurey jihaad.
For Example, the Makaahil of the Habar Awal was the son of an Amhara princesse who was broght back to Somali by a Habar Awal worrior. The Amhara princes asked her captor one favour which to name the first son. After she bore the son she named him Makahil “Micheal” the angel. As a matter of fact many Mahe Dir like the Habar xabuush or Habar Jeclo were also named in such a case.
According to the Fatuh Al Habash, “the fierce and rebellious Isaaq, Issas, and Afar clans who lived close to these groups and was know as “Oda Cali” caused Guurey many problems because as soon as the attacked the Habash enemies and gained some booty they would return to their territorie this angered Imam Ahmed who wanted a displined army. Ali and Mataan a brothers in-law of Gurey and Ahmed Nuur a knephew or Gurey, who later married Gurey’s wife Batiyo Delwambero(Dawmbiro). It is interesting to not The name Dalwambero. It is no accidental it sounds like Dombiro. The Darood Somali clans under Imam Ahmed Gurey where led by another Garad who was know as Guuray and he was married to Delwambera’s sister Mardiya. It was at this period that the Madaxweyn Dir enlisted the Yabbare, Geeri, and Harla, also it was at this juncture of history that the Darood confuse history.
1) The Darood confuse to distinct persons. Namely, Imam Ahmed Ibrahim Ghazali Aragsame the proper Ahmed Guray and the Garad Gurey who led the Darood armies. After centuries they think that their Garad whose name is mentioned in the Fatuh Al Habash as Guray is the same as Ahmed Gurey. So the legacy of Axmed Gurey is not limited to the Gababuursi or Ciisa or Gurgure but as touched all Somalis.
Sheeikh Cabdul Qadir al Jeylaani (Jilani’s Biography) Patron Sain of the Somalis.
Tariikhdii iyo nolashii Sheekh Cabdulqadir Jaylani o ah Sheekh Dariiqad Qadiriyada of Somali iyo Geeska Africa aad ugu Faatay. Sheekh aweys iyo sheekhyo badan oo somali ah ayaa Sheekhan oo reer baqdad ah raacsanaa. Dariiqoyinka Sufism ka ah baryahan waxay far kulul isku hayaan ardayda ka soo labatay Sacuudiga iyo Kaliijka. Maxay kula tahay ? Dariiqoyinka kale Salixiya iyo Darqawiya, Ahmadiyya Somali way ka jiri jireen. ——————————————————————————– The Shaikh’s Life in Baghdaad Through the mists of legend surrounding the life of Shaikh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, it is possible to discern the outlines of the following biographical sketch: In A.H. 488, at the age of eighteen, he left his native province to become a student in the great capital city of Baghdaad, the hub of political, commercial and cultural activity, and the center of religious learning in the world of Islaam. After studying traditional sciences under such teachers as the prominent Hanbalii jurist [faqiih], Abuu Sa’d ‘Alii al-Mukharrimii, he encountered a more spiritually oriented instructor in the saintly person of Abu’l-Khair Hammaad ad-Dabbaas. Then, instead of embarking on his own professorial career, he abandoned the city and spent twenty-five years as a wanderer in the desert regions of ‘Iraaq. He was over fifty years old by the time he returned to Baghdaad, in A.H. 521/1127 C.E., and began to preach in public. His hearers were profoundly affected by the style and content of his lectures, and his reputation grew and spread through all sections of society. He moved into the school [madrasa] belonging to his old teacher al-Mukharrimii, but the premises eventually proved inadequate. In A.H. 528, pious donations were applied to the construction of a residence and guesthouse [ribaat], capable of housing the Shaikh and his large family, as well as providing accommodation for his pupils and space for those who came from far and wide to attend his regular sessions [majaalis]. He lived to a ripe old age, and continued his work until his very last breath, as we know from the accounts of his final moments recorded in the Addendum to Revelations of the Unseen. In the words of Shaikh Muzaffer Ozak Efendi: “The venerable ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani passed on to the Realm of Divine Beauty in A.H. 561/1166 C.E., and his blessed mausoleum in Baghdaad is still a place of pious visitation. He is noted for his extraordinary spiritual experiences and exploits, as well as his memorable sayings and wise teachings. It is rightly said of him that ‘he was born in love, grew in perfection, and met his Lord in the perfection of love.’ May the All-Glorious Lord bring us in contact with his lofty spiritual influence!”
(Posted by guest: Warsame Awad)
Boqortoyad Awdal Ancient Gadabuursi civilization Gurrey
As the direct descendants of Awdal (formerly Adal Empire) inhabitants, the Samaroon people, well known as Gadabursi, are the citizens of Awdal. Despite the so-called SomaliLand Administration who wants to govern the North Regions of the former Somalia, the people of Awdal and the local authority are commited to the creation of an autonomous State of Awdal, the Northern region of the former Somalia. The people of Awdal are well known not only by the bravery, discipline and courage of their ancestors who were the rulers and the leaders of the entire East Africa, centuries ago but also, by their civilization and the consciousness of the existence of their Nation. In fact, the name Gadabursi derives from “Gado Birsi”, which means expansion of land. From the 13th century up to about the 19th century, before the arrival of the British Empire, the people of Awdal were true freedom fighters. During that period of time, they have been through many conflicts and wars against the Abyssinians, the Galas and they even fought against the Portuguese. Without going into the detail of the history of that period of time in this section, let me briefly highlight one of the well-known freedom fighter who left his mark; Ahmed Guray.
Born in 1506 at Hubat located between Harar and Galdaysa, Ahmed Guray lost his father when he was still a child and, an employee of his father adopted him, treating him as his only son. Many years later, Ahmed married Baati, the daughter of the king of Zeyla, named Mahfud. With the help that he received from king Mahfud, Ahmed Guray formed a strong army to fight against the Kingdom of Harar and defeated King Abubakar of Harar. The first battle of Ahmed Guray was in fact a long waited conflict in order to get back the Region of Harar and to free the Somali people living in that region. After having defeated the throne, the brother of Ahmed Guray had replaced King Abubakar. Indeed, the inhuman ruling of that Kingdom has been changed and the people got back the joy of the live and freedom with justice. During the following years, Ahmed Guray prepared his troop to a more bigger conflict, once again to fight for the freedom of the people of the region. This time Ahmed had to confront the Abyssinians, in order to bring down their taxation ruling and their discriminatory policy against non-Abyssinian. He formed a coalition of Somali (mainly Gadabursi) and Afar people, whom were the most discriminated that the Kingdom of Abyssinia was forcing and imposing unjustifiable taxation rules. In 1535, Ahmed Guray conquered 3/4 of the Abyssinians land and, at the age of 35, he became the Emperor of Abyssinia. At that time Ahmed came back to Harar, where he established his Kingdom and he was nominated the Emperor of Abyssinians, Somali and Afar people and, he created a centralised government and putted in place regional states.
As the history teaches us the reality of the past, we can find among the Samaroon people, as we do in other Somali ethics, a lot of great individuals who stood up for the freedom of their people and the dignity of their nation. The Gadabursi are civilized people, who are conform with the practices of their patriotism, respect the environment of their land and follow the changes relative to the time. Saying that, the Samaroon people are well known by their dedication to the education and business. Let me remind you that in the 1800 when the British Empire came to the East Cost of Somalia, they found civilized people who were doing business the way the western countries were doing it, from coast to coast and, from China to Central Africa. Indeed, that people were Samaroon, our ancestors. Soon, the British government sent its own business people in mission to that land, in order to understand and interact with the local people. Dear readers, let me refer you to the *Gadabursy Treaty that the authority based in Zeyla, Awdal at that time, signed with the British Empire, in 1884. In fact, this treaty tells us that the Gadabursi people were not dominated easily by the British but rather, they created a kind of business partnership with the British authority.
Nowadays, a priority for the people and the local authority of Awdal is strengthening the security situation of the northern regions of the former Somalia. Actually, while this people is working hard to keep the peace alive, improve prosperity and revitalise the socio-economic of the region by creating micro-economic business, the so-called SomaliLand Administration is engaged to disrupt the social live of the entire region. In fact, almost a decade after the collapse of the former centralised Somali State, Awdal has become a haven of peace in a conflict ridden the Horn of Africa. Unfortunately, this reality has yet to be recognized by the international communities, wrongly informed by an international media that focuses entirely on the inter-clan militia violence in central and southern areas of Somalia.
sawirka hoose waa qabrigii sheekh samaroon Ee sanaag
qabriga sheekh samaroon
Emergence of Adal
In addition to southward migration, a second factor in Somali history from the fifteenth century onward was the emergence of centralized state systems. The most important of these in medieval times was Adal, whose influence at the height of its power and prosperity in the sixteenth century extended from Saylac, the capital, through the fertile valleys of the Jijiga and the Harer plateau to the Ethiopian highlands. Adal’s fame derived not only from the prosperity and cosmopolitanism of its people, its architectural sophistication, graceful mosques, and high learning, but also from its conflicts with the expansionist Ethiopians. For hundreds of years before the fifteenth century, goodwill had existed between the dominant new civilization of Islam and the Christian neguses of Ethiopia. One tradition holds that Muhammad blessed Ethiopia and enjoined his disciples from ever conducting jihad (holy war) against the Christian kingdom in gratitude for the protection early Muslims had received from the Ethiopian negus. Whereas Muslim armies rapidly overran the more powerful empires of Persia and Byzantium soon after the birth of Islam, there was no jihad against Christian Ethiopia for centuries. The forbidding Ethiopian terrain of deep gorges, sharp escarpments, and perpendicular massifs that rise more than 4,500 meters also discouraged the Muslims from attempting a campaign of conquest against so inaccessible a kingdom.
Muslim-Christian relations soured during the reign of the aggressive Negus Yeshaq (ruled 1414-29). Forces of his rapidly expanding empire descended from the highlands to despoil Muslim settlements in the valley east of the ancient city of Harer. Having branded the Muslims “enemies of the Lord,” Yeshaq invaded the Muslim Kingdom of Ifat in 1415. He crushed the armies of Ifat and put to flight in the wastes along the Gulf of Tadjoura (in present-day Djibouti) Ifat’s king Saad ad Din. Yeshaq followed Saad ad Din to the island off the coast of Saylac (which still bears his name), where the Muslim king was killed. Yeshaq compelled the Muslims to offer tribute, and also ordered his singers to compose a gloating hymn of thanksgiving for his victory. In the hymn’s lyrics, the word Somali appears for the first time in written record.
By the sixteenth century, the Muslims had recovered sufficiently to break through from the east into the central Ethiopian highlands. Led by the charismatic Imam Ahmad Guray (1506-43), of the current Abrain clan of the Gadabursi the Muslims poured into Ethiopia, using scorched-earth tactics that decimated the population of the country. A Portuguese expedition led by Pedro da Gama, a son of Vasco da Gama who was looking for the Prester John of medieval European folklore–a Christian, African monarch of vast dominions–arrived from the sea and saved Ethiopia. The joint Portuguese-Ethiopian force used cannon to route the Muslims, whose imam died on the battlefield.
Awdal Empire of 700 AD –>1900 AD
Right after the Prophet’s (PBUH) death, an influx of religious teachers and merchants from the middle east, Oman and Yemen poured into Awdal and started doing business with the Empire. The Empire expanded. And, at the height of its power and prosperity in the sixteenth century, Awdal under the leadership of Sheikh Ahmed Guray, extended from Zeila to as far west as the city of Akxum; what is now western Ethiopia.
Even though the colonial anthropologist I.M. Lewis intentionally gives a distorted image of Skeikh Ahmad Guray’s origin, calling him the issue of a Coptic priest and a Muslim harlot, the Sheikh is from the Abrain sub-clan of the Maxaad Casse’ clan of The Gadabursi. His off springs still live in the city of Zeila where he was the king of.
There are many writings in several different languages about this long and peaceful era, but I chose to include some excerpts from the US Military Strategic Handbook of Somalia written after the Black Hawk down.
The military wanted to learn everything about Somalia and be prepared for future occurrences if any. So they offered grants to ten US universities to study Somalia from the beginning to the present, (everything there is to know ).
And the best beginning these researchers found was Awdal, where they say was the first place the word “Somali” was ever spoken. That alone emphasizes Awdal’s importance in the history of the Horn.
The Dir history in Iman Samaroons era- meaning of Gadabursi
Imam Samaroon Said alle ha unaxriisto 1432 AD when the Amhara cruseaders conquered Somali, Iman Said was the muslim leader who led the Madanluug Dir and when the imam was later fighting in the Westren flank of the Guurey army he was injured at dardarley. The name Gadabuursi was given to his descendents at the last critical moment before he made a final stand to the Amhara at the mandaluug ancestral homeland of Amuud which was destroyed over 50,000 homes where excuvated recently and the place was leveled with the ground 10, 000 thousands perished. The Magadle Dir was completely annilated except for the 10,000 or saw that survive in Cerigaabo. The Madoobe Dir installed a Madaxweyn Dir dynasty The Wardiiq who was the ruling remenants of the Madaxeyn. Madigan, Gurgure and the Barsuug Dir fled west and were encirled by the Oromos- Many assimilated and the union formed a half cast Jarso. The Isaaq Dir reconstituted as Maxamed (Axmed Xiniftire) new Habar alliences formed the Nacadoor,Mikidoor,Nabidoor and the Idoor all disappeared. The name Gaada Biirsay means The one who collected the army or “chests” the name refered to the desparate effort of imam Samaroon Said to collect and muster the power of his kinsman against the infidels. Gaado means shafka ama xabadka (gaada ha i saarin oo kale. Gaadsan the westren Dir ‘s name means the one with the army or good chest litraray. The Gadabuursi latter suffered a davastating defeat and actually the present day Amuud which has a old cementary called Lafaruug was destroyed by the Amhara King. Also note it was this period that the King Shihad a Diin buried in Zailac Island was killed. The Gudabuursi Dir and Modoobe Dir never recovered from these davastating blows. The Madaluug in Southren Somalia and the Biyamaal as well as The Fiq’s Suure all point their Southren movement from Amuud region in the 1600’s during the Axmed Guurey era. The Suure Dir who are as a matter of fact still in Hauda region and whom refer them self’s as Fiqi’s where the Her or sheikh associated with Awbarre/Buube/ Yusuf Barkad kowniin students who entered Mudug region at the time when the Ajuuran ruled at mereg and some served as Imams under one malakh Gareenow Xaasey. The Suure Fiqi’s, Biyamaal, Guure, and the Badimaal all entered the south. The Biyamal claim to have entered the Banadir area, a name meaning beynka direeb, in 1700’s. The Gurgure/Akisho cluster and reminders of Madaxweyn Dir conquered the Dira Dhabe ” meeshu Diri Dhabe” ama waranka ka taagay. The Gurgure which is not their real name (Gurgure means trader hence the word Gorgortan – to bargain)